Pathophysiology of Diabetes
Are you familiar with the disease called Diabetes? Nowadays, this disease is increasing so fast, WHO reported Diabetes cases increased four times from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. There two types of Diabetes, but most people with diabetes suffer from diabetes type two. Do you have any idea of the pathophysiology of diabetes? If you don’t, here some information about it.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is symptoms in a person caused by increased blood sugar levels (glucose) due to lack of insulin both absolute and relative. Diabetes is divided into two types, Diabetes type 1 and Diabetes type 2. In Diabetes type 1, there is no particular factor that causes this disease but the genetic maybe has a role in this disease. It is different from the Diabetes type two that is clearly caused because people lifestyle. The main factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity and less physical activity.
How is the Pathophysiology of Diabetes ?
The pancreas or the salivary gland, is producing insulin for our body and located behind our stomach. Insulin is really important because insulin in our body help glucose in the blood enters the cell, then glucose are metabolized into energy. In diabetes type 1, naturally the patient’s body doesn’t produce insulin or produce in less amount of it. The glucose that can enter the cell will be increased. This situation makes the patient should consume insulin so it can support small amount insulin in our body.
Diabetes type 1, is usually found in children with parents who are diabetics. Diabetes type 2 is different from diabetes type 1. Most of the suffering diabetes patients in the world suffer from this type of diabetes. In diabetes type 2, patients can have normal amount of insulin, even more, but the number of receptors (catchers) of insulin on the cell surface is less. This insulin receptor is the one that can help the glucose to enter the cell. In the case of diabetes type 2, the number of receptors is less , so even though the amount of insulin is large, but because the amount of receptor than the glucose entering the cell is small.
In the end, the insulin and glucose levels in Blood increases. In diabetes type 2, the reason is not because the amount of the insulin, but also because the quality of the insulin. When the patient pancreas condition is disturbed, it automatically influences the quality of insulin. If the quality of insulin is bad, it will fail to bring glucose into the cell. In addition to the above causes, diabetes can also occur due to disruption of glucose transport in the cells that fail to be used as a fuel for energy metabolism. For the patient who suffers from this type of diabetes, they should start to maintain their level of glucose by reducing sugar consumption, eating healthy food and exercising.
What do we get from this?
In conclusion, if we talk about pathophysiology of diabetes, we’ll mostly discuss about insulin, glucose and pancreas. In diabetes type 1, the disease can occur because of the genetics. But in the diabetes type 2, the main reasons of this disease are obesity and less physical activity.